The aircraft involved, a Vickers Viscount named the Hunyaniwas flying the last leg of Breda girls seeking sex Rhodesia 's regular scheduled service from Victoria Falls to the capital Salisburyvia the resort town Breda girls seeking sex Kariba. Soon seekjng Flight took off, a group of ZIPRA guerrillas scored a hit on its starboard wing with a Soviet-made Strela-2 surface-to-air infrared homing missile, critically damaging the aircraft and forcing an emergency landing.
An attempted belly landing in a cotton field just west of Karoi was foiled grils a ditch, which caused the plane to cartwheel and Clarion PA sex dating up.
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Of the 52 passengers and four crew, 38 died in the crash; the insurgents then approached the wreckage, rounded up the 10 Breda girls seeking sex they could see and massacred them with automatic gunfire. Three passengers survived by hiding in the surrounding bush, while a further five lived because they had gone to look Beeda water before the guerrillas arrived.
ZIPRA leader Joshua Nkomo publicly claimed responsibility for shooting down the Hunyani in an interview with the BBC 's Today programme the next day, saying the aircraft had been used for military purposes, but denied that his men had killed survivors on the ground. The majority of Rhodesians, both black and white,  saw the attack as an act of terrorism. Talks between Nkomo and Prime Minister Ian Smithwhich had been progressing promisingly, were immediately suspended by the Rhodesians, with Smith calling Nkomo Breda girls seeking sex "monster".
The attack on ZIPRA in particular brought great controversy as many of those killed were refugees camping in and around guerrilla positions. A dispute over gitls terms for the granting of full sovereignty to the self-governing Breda girls seeking sex of Rhodesia or Southern Rhodesia [n 1] led the colonial government, headed by Prime Minister Ian Smithto unilaterally declare independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November The idea of " no independence before majority rule " had recently gained Breda girls seeking sex in Britain and elsewhere amid decolonisationrBeda Rhodesia's government was dominated by the country's white minorityso the unilateral declaration went unrecognised internationally.
Britain and the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Rhodesia.
Breda girls seeking sex Two rival communist-backed black nationalist groups initiated military campaigns to overthrow the government and introduce majority rule: After the security forces mounted a successful counter-insurgency campaign during and developments overseas caused the conflict's momentum to shift in the insurgents' favour. The leftist Carnation Revolution of April caused Portugal to withdraw its key economic support for Smith's administration, and led to Mozambique's independence the following year as a communist state openly allied with ZANU.
This created a grls black—white transitional government, with the country due to be sweking as Zimbabwe Rhodesia inpursuant to multiracial elections. The transitional government was badly received abroad, seekkng because the Internal Breda girls seeking sex kept control of Breda girls seeking sex enforcement, the military, the judiciary and the civil service under white control. Starting on 14 Augusthe attended secret meetings with Nkomo in Beautiful ladies looking seduction TucsonZambia where ZAPU was baseddoing so with the assistance of the mining corporation Lonrho.
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On 2 September, Smith seekng Nkomo revealed publicly that the secret meetings had taken place. Rhodesian air traffic was not seriously threatened Breda girls seeking sex aboutin the latter Beeda of the war; before this time, neither revolutionary force had the weapons to launch a viable attack against an aerial target. The weapon that made such attacks feasible for ZIPRA was the Strela-2 shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile launcherSlutty Annapolis girls by the Soviet Union from the mids as part of the Warsaw Pact's materiel support.
Some Rhodesian Air Force Dakotas had been Breda girls seeking sex, but all had survived and landed safely. No civilian aircraft had yet been targeted during the Bush War. Air Rhodesia was the country's national airlineestablished by the government on 1 September to succeed Central African Airwayswhich was dissolved at the end of that year. Based at Salisbury AirportAir Rhodesia's flight network during the late s comprised a domestic programme of passenger and cargo flights, as well as international services to the South African cities of Johannesburg and Durban.
The Flight aircraft was a Vickers Viscount D, a British-made turboprop aircraft with two engines on each wing. It was named the Hunyani after the river of the same namewhich flowed between Lake Kariba and the Rhodesian capital Salisbury. The Hunyani was on the second and final leg of its regular scheduled journey between Victoria Falls and Salisbury, stopping over in the resort town of Kariba. Flight was piloted by year-old Captain John Hood, a native of Bulawayo who had gained his commercial pilot licence in He had flown Viscounts for Air Rhodesia since Breda girls seeking sex, and had also served in the Rhodesian Air Force on a voluntary basis.
His first officer, Garth Beaumont, was 31 years old, and had lived in Rhodesia for most of his life, having immigrated as a Breda girls seeking sex from South Africa. The two air stewardesses were Dulcie Breda girls seeking sex, 21 years old and from Bulawayo, and year-old Louise Pearson, Breda girls seeking sex Salisbury.
A group of ZIPRA guerrillas, armed with a Strela-2 launcher, waited in the bush beneath Flight 's flightpath, and fired on the Hunyani about five minutes after it took off, while the aircraft was still in the climb phase of its flight. A fuel tank and hydraulic lines ruptured, creating a fire that could not be put out. The second starboard engine failed almost immediately, leaving Hood with only his two port engines. Heaving wildly, the Hunyani began to descend rapidly. The landing was relatively stable until the Hunyani hit a ditch, cartwheeled and exploded.
The remaining fuel tanks ruptured and caught fire, setting the wrecked cabin ablaze. Of the 56 people on board, 38, including Hood and Beaumont, died in the crash. Eighteen survived, albeit with injuries, and climbed out of the wreckage. After briefly settling the others, one of the passengers, Cecil MacLaren, led four others—young Breda girls seeking sex Robert and Shannon Hargreaves, Sharon Coles, and her four-year-old daughter Tracey—off Breda girls seeking sex the direction of a nearby village Hot ladies seeking casual sex Fargo search of water.
Meanwhile, nine guerrillas made their way towards the crash site, and reached it at about Rhodesian Army reservist Anthony Hill, 39, took cover in the surrounding bush, while businessman Hans Hansen and his wife Diana did the same. The guerrillas, who were armed with AK rifles, presented themselves to the 10 passengers as friendly, saying they would summon help and bring water.
They told the passengers to congregate around a point a few metres from the wreckage; when the survivors said that some of them were too badly injured to walk, the insurgents told the able-bodied men to carry the others. Those that survived the Looking for sex tonight in Maryvale bursts were bayoneted including a mother and her 3 week old baby.
Having collected water from the nearby village, MacLaren and his companions were almost back at the crash Breda girls seeking sex when they heard the shots. Thinking it was personal ammunition in the luggage exploding in the Sex with older women, they continued on their way, and called out to the other passengers, who they thought were still alive. This alerted the insurgents to the presence of more survivors; one of the guerrillas told Breda girls seeking sex group to "come here".
After Hill and the others had hidden seekinv for about two hours, they saw the attackers return Bdeda the crash site at about The guerrillas looted giels wrecked cabin and some of the suitcases strewn around the site, filled their arms with passengers' belongings, then left again.
The survivors were found over the following days by the Rhodesian Army and police; Hill and the Hansens were taken to Kariba Hospital, while MacLaren and his group were airlifted to Andrew Fleming Hospital in Salisbury.
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Nkomo claimed responsibility for the attack in an interview with the BBC 's Today radio programme the next day, laughing as he did so,  to the horror of most Rhodesian observers,   both black and white. Nkomo said he regretted the deaths as it was not his party's Breda girls seeking sex to kill civilians, and denied that his men had killed any survivors on the ground; by contrast, he said that his men had helped them, and Rock island IL housewives personals left them alive.
According to Eliakim Sibanda, a professor and human rights speaker who wrote a Breda girls seeking sex of ZAPU, Nkomo was implying that responsibility for the massacre lay with security force pseudo-guerrillas, more specifically the Selous Scouts unit, which had often seekimg accused of brutalising rural civilians with the goal of shifting public opinion.
Sibanda asserts that the massacre "cannot be put beyond" the Scouts, and also supports Nkomo's claim that the Hunyani had been used militarily, suggesting that ZIPRA might have believed there to be Rhodesian soldiers on board. A report published in the American magazine Breda girls seeking sex a fortnight later described the incident as "a genuine horror story, calculated to make the most alarming of Rhodesian doomsday prophecies seem Brrda.
A Friends of Rhodesia Society in South Africa offered a reward of RNasty but fun snapchat anybody who would either kill Nkomo or bring him to Salisbury to stand trial. Geoffrey Nyarotawho was then one of the few black reporters at the Rhodesia Herald newspaper, later wrote in his memoirs giros many whites became resentful and wary Breda girls seeking sex blacks in general, believing them all to be "terrorist sympathisers".
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I sensed that some of the more derogatory remarks made in unnecessarily loud voices that seking were meant specifically for my Breda girls seeking sex. Several racially motivated incidents occurred over the following days. According to the Time article, a group of whites entered an unsegregated Salisbury bar "fingering the triggers of rifles" and forced blacks drinking there to leave.
At a memorial service held on 8 September for Flight 's passengers and crew at Salisbury's Anglican Cathedral, about 2, people crowded inside, with another standing outside on the steps and pavement, many listening to the service inside on portable radio sets.
Prominent among those present in the cathedral were uniformed Air Rhodesia and South African Airways personnel, as well as Rhodesian Special Air Service soldiers and xeeking officers from other military units. Dean John de Costa gave a sermon damning what he described as a "deafening Berda from Brexa. Like men in the story of the Housewives seeking sex CA San diego 92126 Samaritanthey pass by on the other side  The ghastliness of this ill-fated flight from Kariba will be burnt upon our memories Breda girls seeking sex years to come.
For others, far from our borders, it is an intellectual matter, not one which affects them deeply. Here is the tragedy! The talks between Smith and the ZAPU leader that had been progressing so promisingly were immediately halted by Salisbury.
Smith himself called Nkomo a "monster". He surmises that an agreement between the two "at this critical stage" might have helped the transitional Rhodesian government to secure international recognition. On Breda girls seeking sex September, the Prime Minister announced to the nation that certain areas of the country would be placed under a variation of martial lawwhich he said would be applied in particular regions as and when needed.
He declared Rhodesia's intent Breda girls seeking sex "liquidate the internal workings of those organisations associated with terrorism", and warned neighbouring countries to prepare for "any defensive strikes seekijg might undertake" against guerrilla bases in their respective territories.
He claimed that the war had escalated because Britain and the United States were supporting the Patriotic Front.Adult Looking Adult Dating Boise Idaho
The Rhodesian military had struck these bases extensively in November during Operation DingoBreda girls seeking sex much of the ZANLA presence there, but the insurgents had since built a complex called "New Chimoio", slightly to the east; the new camps were distributed across a far larger area than the originals.
According to Rhodesian figures, there were "several hundred" guerrillas killed, while the security forces lost only two Brwda, one Single ladies looking sex Framingham whom was accidentally killed by a friendly air strike.
Operation Gatling was launched on 19 October Gatling 's primary target, just 16 kilometres 10 miles north-east of central Lusakawas the formerly white-owned Westlands Farmwhich had been transformed into ZIPRA's main headquarters and Breda girls seeking sex base under the name "Freedom Camp". Assaulting targets deep inside Zambia was a first for the Rhodesian forces; previously only guerrillas near the border had been attacked.
Led by Squadron Leader Chris Dixon, who identified himself to Lusaka Airport tower as "Green Leader", a Rhodesian Air Force group flew into Zambia at very low altitudes thereby avoiding Zambian radar and took control of the country's airspace for about a quarter of an hour during the initial assault on Westlands Farm, informing Lusaka tower that the attack was against "Rhodesian dissidents, and not against Zambia", and that Rhodesian Hawker Hunters were circling the Zambian airfields under Breda girls seeking sex to shoot down any fighter that attempted to take off.
The Zambians obeyed all of Green Leader's instructions, made no attempt to resist and temporarily halted civil air traffic. Historians Paul Moorcraft and Peter McLaughlin write that this exaggerated considerably the number of guerrillas killed, Breda girls seeking sex most of Nkomo's army, then numbering about 10, fighters, had not been touched. On the other hand, unarmed refugees often camped in or around insurgent positions, Breda girls seeking sex hundreds of these had been killed in the Rhodesian raid.
Moorcraft and McLaughlin comment that for the Rhodesian airmen, it would have been "impossible to distinguish innocent refugees from young ZIPRA recruits. Nkomo and the Breda girls seeking sex President Kenneth Kaunda all the same requested further military aid and better weapons from the Soviets and the British respectively. Martial law was quickly extended across Rhodesia's rural areas, and covered three-quarters of the country by the Housewives looking real sex Fort collins Colorado 80526 of This time there were no survivors.
Following the second shootdown, Air Rhodesia created a system whereby the underside of the Viscounts would be coated with low-radiation Beautiful older woman ready casual encounter Montgomery, with the exhaust pipes concurrently shrouded.
There were no further Viscount shootdowns in Rhodesia. The UK government suspended the constitution and took Breda girls seeking sex control for an interim period. In modern Zimbabwe, it is not the Viscount shootdowns but rather the retributory Rhodesian strikes against nationalist guerrilla camps that endure predominantly in the cultural memory.
State media in Zimbabwe, prominently the Herald newspaper, Breda girls seeking sex claim that Rhodesian forces indiscriminately and deliberately Breda girls seeking sex thousands of helpless refugees during such operations. A monument to those killed in the Rhodesian attack on Chikumbi was built in Zambia inand dedicated jointly by the Zambian and Zimbabwean governments.
A pole beside the monument flies the Rhodesian flag. A British parliamentary motion put forward by Labour MP Kate Hoey in February to retrospectively condemn the Viscount attacks and memorialise the victims on the anniversary of the second shootdown prompted outcry in the Zimbabwean press, with the Herald branding it a racist " Rhodie motion" intended to antagonise the Mugabe administration and its supporters.
Christopher Mutsvangwaa diplomat and political analyst, took a similar line, calling Hoey's proposed commemoration "a provocation There is no mention of what happened to our sons and daughters in and outside the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.