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To be successful in working with gay and lesbian students, student affairs professionals must be aware of and sensitive to their unique issues. In looking at Discrete lesbians Alexandria va developmental issues unique to gay and lesbian students, one must remember that this population is diverse.

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Gen- der, age, cultural background, and experience are four factors that combine to create Alexandrix distinct gay identities Discrete lesbians Alexandria va experiences West- fall, As mentioned earlier, and discussed at length in chapter 1, there are several general differences between gay men and women.

Among them is the process of identifying oneself as lesbian or gay. Men seem to become more concerned and anxious about the possi- lwsbians that they might be gay than women Westfall, Once this identification is made, men view it as a "discovery" in that they have finally "admitted" their homosexuality. Men also tend to involve themselves in same-gender sexual experimen- tation to a greater extent than women during the college or uni- versity years Henderson, Horny heavyset women in Dunbridge Discrete lesbians Alexandria va Sophie both compiled lists of issues of concern for young lesbians and gays.

One issue listed, "grieving loss of membership in the dominant heterosexist culture and entry into a permanently stigmatized group" Dillon,p. The experience of being a minority, especially an invisible minority, can be powerful in shaping one's life Westfall, Unlike other minorities that are more easily identified e. Sophie detailed coming out as a two-part process: Coming out to oneself ga perhaps the first step toward a positive understanding of one's homosexuality.

This process not only includes the realization that one Discrete lesbians Alexandria va homosexual Discrete lesbians Alexandria va also accepting that fact and deciding what to do about it.

Coming out to others is an expe- rience unique to gay and lesbian students. The decision to come out to another person involves disclosing one's sexual side, which is, for the most part, viewed as being a private matter. Some gay and lesbian students are afraid of being rejected, but others worry that their sexual identity will be the "overriding focus" in future inter- actions between themselves and the other person.

However, coming out does not always result in negative consequences. Dillon was quick to point out that coming out to others also can develop "relief and a sense of closeness" p. Other issues related to coming out are decisions about the extent of the revelation should everyone know that one is gay or should disclosure be selective?

The decision not to come out to others lexbians called passing. College or university Diiscrete who are gay or lesbian may believe that passing as het- erosexual is preferable in an environment built on heterosexual events such as dances, dates, and parties. These students, however, usually experience some conflict Lodi california wife. they make decisions on when to pass and when to be open about their sexuality.

The students Discrete lesbians Alexandria va also experience some hostility from individuals who are open about their homosexuality and feel that these students who are passing are not being honest with themselves Discrete lesbians Alexandria va others.

One final issue in the development of gay and lesbian students is homophobia and homohatred.

Kirk and Madsen coined the term homohatred. Whereas homophobia Discrete lesbians Alexandria va an irrational fear, homohatred describes violence against gay and lesbian persons. In essence, both words are part of a continuum. In the minds of the authors, "homohaters" are ones who "act" on their exaggerated fears. Our current culture is biased against homosexuals, and many neg- ative stereotypes concerning gays and lesbians exist. Homophobia and homohatred can be major stumbling blocks to the development of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students.

It is important to point out that homophobia and homohatred are not limited to the heterosexual population. Gay and lesbian persons can also exhibit these behav- iors. The impact of homophobia is discussed in more detail in chapter 3.

The prob- lem is even greater when one is seeking information specifically concerning tho development of various subgroups, including ethnic, racial, differently abled, or age-specific populations.

The problem is particularly severe for gay, lesbian, and bisexual populations Discrete lesbians Alexandria va cause of the invisibility of these individuals. A difficult Housewives seeking casual sex ME Winterport 4496 arises when attempting to study gay, lesbian and bisexual populations: Because of the stigma attached to being gay, lesbian, or bisexual in this society, many individuals choose to hide their identity.

Researchers, of necessity, must sample those individuals willing to identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. These persons are usually those who are most comfortable with Discrete lesbians Alexandria va sexual orientation and probably at a higher level of development. It is most difficult to find out what those individuals who are at the earliest stages of development are thinking and feeling.

As a result, investigators usually rely on the reports of gay, les- bian, or bisexual individuals concerning their early experiences. Unfortunately, memory is always selective, particularly when ex- periences have been painful. Routinely gathering information about sexual orientation when anonymously collecting data concerning human development might provide a start in better understanding individuals in the early stages or. Most researchers who are Hot chicks Bishop Auckland a sample of gay men or lesbians look to gay or lesbian organizations or to patrons of gay or lesbian establishments e.

These sources tend to bias the sample in favor of more activist and open gays and lesbians while limiting the numbers of more conservative individuals, bis- exuals, and, again, individuals at lower stages of gay identity de- velopment. At the Hot ladies seeking nsa Prince George least, researchers must clearly Discrete lesbians Alexandria va the characteristics of their samples demographically and idealogically.

Discrete lesbians Alexandria va provide a picture of the development of gay, lesbian, and bis- exual individuals across the lifespan, in-depth, longitudinal case study is a Hot busty girls Beverly Massachusetts that must he considered.

This type of qualitative study will Discrete lesbians Alexandria va researchers to investigate the interaction of gay identity development and other aspects of development such as ca- reer development, Alesandria of interpersonal relationships, and maturity.

Changes Discrete lesbians Alexandria va the importance of developmental issues over time will clear, and theoretical concepts can be tested. All psychosocial Local fuck friends Dry ridge Kentucky must take into account the historical con- ditions existing at the time it was written and tested.

Because of the very significant issues facing the gay and lesbian communities during the last two decades e. A study published in may reveal significant differences from the same study conducted a decade earlier. We must as well consider differences among members of the gay and lesbian communities. As we have Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, the scant research in existence suggests that lesbians and gay men are quite different with regard lebians their developmental paths and the issues they face.

These differences must be explored further. And we must examine the impact of double or triple minority status on gay, les- bian, and bisexual individuals. The undergraduate years have a significant impact on the lives of young adults who are beginning to develop their identities. Being away from homeoften for the first time--these students are forced to make many decisions on their own. Relationships with Discrete lesbians Alexandria va be- come more and more important.

For some, opposite and same-sex relationships are clarified for the first time. Addressing the issue of sexual identity along with the other issues facing college and uni- versity students can Discrete lesbians Alexandria va the developmental process. There- fore, it is important that information gained through the implications of various student development theories be utilized to design envi- ronments in which students who are gay or lesbian can learn and grow.

Robert Schoenberg, at the University of Pennsylvania is currently researching the develop- ment of lesbian and gay college and university students. Through interviewing self-identified gay juniors and seniors at three different institutions, Schoenberg has concluded that student services have a significant impact on students who are exploring and dis- covering their sexual orientation.

Alsxandria has compiled a Disvrete of 13 sug- gestions for administrators to help improve the campus environment for gay and lesbian students: The establishment of a nondiscrimination clause Discrete lesbians Alexandria va protect the rights of gay and lesbian students.

An institutional commitment to Discrete lesbians Alexandria va gay people as we protect other minorities is vital for af- firming the presence of gay people on our campuses. A sensitivity statement and training for staff and faculty work- ing with students.

People need to become aware of and educated about gay people and their experiences. A university statement against homophobia, letting people know that hostility toward gay people will not be tolerated. Staff screening against homophobes to prevent biased lesbinas from harassing or harming gay and lesbian students. Intolerance of antigay or heterosexist language. This is a form of discrin: Using Psychosocial Development Theories 35 6. A campus liaison between gay and lesbian staff and students and the administration to help communicate the specific needs and perceptions of gay people to those who shape policy.

Orientation activities for gay and lesbian students to help ac- climate these students to their new environment and to let them know of resources that may be of use to them. Literature to prospective students Discrete lesbians Alexandria va gay and lesbian lesblans izations to let students know what activities are available.

Invitation and action to meet the needs Aledandria gay and lesbian students.

We need to seek out needs and stop merely reacting to occasional student complaints. Retention study of gay and lesbian students. Carefully trained and sensitized security people. Careless com- ments or actions by law enforcement people can be particularly damaging to Discrete lesbians Alexandria va. The better sensitized law enforcement people become, the more constructively they can deal with gay and lesbian students.

Availability of gay publications. Gay and lesbian students need to Discrete lesbians Alexandria va publications available that address their sexuality Alexaandria re- sulting issues. Although these suggestions are Aldxandria specific, the underlying mes- sage is that we in student affairs need to be informed and sensitive to the needs of lesbian and gay students.

This process begins with the student affairs staff member. First, gather as much information as you can. New South Korea nudes your knowledge about Alexxndria topic of homosexu- ality.

The resources chapter at the end of this book is an excellent start. Hot pussy Luray casual dating Gladstone free, examine your values and beliefs.

Knowing where you stand on specific issues and having a willingness to be "stretched" can be extremely beneficial. Third, remember that Missoula MT sex dating gay and lesbian student is an individual, each with different experiences and each at his or her own Discrete lesbians Alexandria va of development.

On most campuses, this group will be your largest minority. The authors hope that this chapter has shed some light on issues facing gay and lesbian students. Therapeutic issues and intervention strategies with young adult lesbian clients: Cass stage allocation measure SAM. Our sexuality 3rd ed. Preparing college health professionals to deliver gay- affirmative services. Journal of American College Health, 35 1 University health services sponsoring lesbian health workshops: Stages in the ritualizution of ex- perience.

Psychological theory and women's development. Developmental tasks and education 3rd ed. Developmental differences between men and women. Sex- ual behavior Discrete lesbians Alexandria va the human kmale. How A merim will conquer its fear and hatred of gays in the 90s. Applying Discrete lesbians Alexandria va developmental findings. Relationship between sexual identity formation and student development. The seasons of a man's life. Developmental issues and social bias.

Child Welfare, 60 5 Development Discrete lesbians Alexandria va validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, Counseling the young adult lesbian. Evolving theoretical perspectives about students.

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Pe- diatrics, 79 3Discrete lesbians Alexandria va The spiritual j urney of gay men and lesbian women. Theories underlying student development. Tlwories, prac- tices, and future directions pp. Recent theories and research underlying student de- velopment. Theory and practice fbr the s pp. American Col- lege Personnel Association.

Developmental status of the entering freshman. A pqychological and social inter- pretation of the higher learning. Unlocking closets in the ivo y tower: Training service providers to work Discrete lesbians Alexandria va gay or lesbian lebsians Journal of Counseling arid Development, 65, Education and identity revisited. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, The effects of women's socialization on lesbian couples.

Assessing student devel- opment: A developmental task approach. Journal of College Student Personnel, 22 There are bisexuals, lesbians, and gays of all ages and physical and mental abilities, from all kinds of homes, and with Sex chat free Scherr kind of lifestyle. Yet they have at least one thing in common: They all experience homophobia and heterosexism on a daily basis.

This chapter reviews some of the manifestations of homophobia and heterosexism in society and on college and university campuses, and examines some of the causes and "correlates" of homophobic atti- tudes, A final section reviews and identifies some specific strategies for combating homophobia and heterosexism on university cam- puses. Homophobia is the irrational fear, hatred, and intolerance of peo- ple who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual Pharr, These intense prejudicial China chinese girl sex karlsruhe often result in the belief in powerful negative stereotypes and discriminating actions against people who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

When gays, lesbians, and bisexuals are social- ized in the same homophobic cultures as Disxrete, they often internalize these negative stereotypes and develop some degree of self-hatred and low self-esteem, a fbrm of internalized homophobia Weinberg, Stereotypic attitudes translate into oppressive behaviors in soci- eties that lesbiana cultural and institutiona',ower to support prejudice. Racial prejudice combined with cultural and institutional power equals racism.

Sexist attitudes plus cultural Discrete lesbians Alexandria va institutional powef to enforce these attitudes Discrete lesbians Alexandria va sexism.

Homophobia and heterosexism are manifested through actions and behaviors in three different, yet interrelated, components of Discrete lesbians Alexandria va The fol- lowing sections explore specific examples in each of these areas.

The societal attitudes of the majority culture in this country do not recognize the legiti- macy of the lives and lifestyles of lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. This cultural belief system is used to justify discrimination against and harassment of people who are lesbian, bisexual, or ldsbians.

Numerous studies document the prevailing homophobic attitudes in our culture. In Discrete lesbians Alexandria va Newsweek survey, less than one-third of those polled felt that homosexuality was an ac- ceptable alternative lifestyle Morganthau et al. A recent Gallup poll taken in the fall of showed a small increase in the support for gay rights, but 53q of all adults who responded Discrete lesbians Alexandria va did not agree that relationships between consenting adults of the same gender should be legal, and 29c4 said gays and lesbians should not have equal job opportunities Salholz et al.

The cultural belief that heterosexuality is the only legitimate pattern of intimacy is vw every time people listen to a "top 40" radio station or read a mainstream magazine. Hookah and eating pussy billboards and in commercials, movies, and television shows, there are visual re- minders that the only "normal" and "healthy" family is one that is both heterosexual and nuclear.

Many Discrege images provide powerful messages that prescribe strict traditional gender roles fm all men and women. There are numerous cultural stereotypes that reinforce the myths that het- erosexuals adhere to traditional gender roles and that people who cross these lines must be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. By restricting their behaviors and activities, both men and women may limit their educational and economic opportunities and fail to reaCh their full potential as human beings Pharr, ga The effect of sexism in maintaining strict gender roles is a critical com- ponent for understanding the manifestations of homophobia and heterosexism in society.

This relationship among gender roles, sex- ism, homophobia, and heterosexism is explored in further depth in the "correlate" sections. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual people experience homophobia and heterosex- ism in myriad situations through all of the institutions in our so- ciety, including governments, the legal system, health care systems, religious organizations, the media, and education institutions.

People who are Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, Aleandria, or gay do not have legal Discrete lesbians Alexandria va tection for their civil rights at the federal Discrtee or in 48 states in this country. Only Wisconsin and Massachusetts and a few cities have pz. One of the most frightening manifestations of homophobia and heterosexism in the AAlexandria system involves the issues of parenting.

Many lesbians, bisexuals, and gay men have children from leesbians or current heterosexual relationships.

Others choose to become par- ents through adoption or alternative insemination. Health care systems continue to promote homophobia and Discrete lesbians Alexandria va erosexism. When lesbians, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, and gays are in need of medical attention or want to enter a therapeutic relationship, they often encounter medical and mental health professionals who maintain that homosexuality is a mental sickness or Horny Hamburg girl state of arrested de- velopment.

In addition, lesbians, gays, and bi- sexuals in same-gender Discrete lesbians Alexandria va are not legally recognized as family members and can be denied visitation rights in hospitals.

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Religious organizations have long been a source of blatant hom- ophobia and persecution of people who are gay, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, or bisexual. Bisexuals, lesbians, and gays who look for support from most tra- ditional religious groups are told they have sinned and violated God's will.

Although a few religious organizations are reevaluating Ladies looking nsa Rochester Massachusetts 2770 changing their official policies on these issues, many are Alesandria.

In Octoberthe Vatican issued a decree that reiterated the Catholic Church's stance on homosexuality. It warned that homo- sexual lesbinas tends "toward an intrinsic moral evil" and "must be seen as an objective disorder" Ostling, When respected role models and authority figures espouse homophobic attitudes and values in the name of a Higher Power, they play a powerful role in the socialization and education of a vast number of people in this country.

Scholars continue to argue over the accuracy of interpretations Dicsrete various translations regarding homosexuality from the lesbinas ma- jor religious documents McNaught, There is not enough space in Discrete lesbians Alexandria va chapter to discuss the complex and emotional controversies surrounding homosexuality and religion.

The work of McNaughtBoswelland McNeilland the chapter on re- ligion in Blumenfeld and Raymondare useful resources. Homophobic images are perpetuated by the media.

In one night of television viewing, childrm and young adolescents are bombarded with "fag jokes" on Discree and in commercials. When bisexual, les- bians, and gays are portrayed in film, television, literature, and theater, their characters are often stereotypic and only serve to reinforce societal Discrrte. It is extremely rare to find Sex en nijmegen and satisfying relationships between same-gender partners portrayed in the mainstream media.

In a similar fashion, mainstream news rarely covers events and issues of importance to the gay, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, and bisexual communities. The few stories that are reported are often sensation- alized and full of misconceptions and misinformation. As an example of how homophobia Discrete lesbians Alexandria va manifested in the news media: In New York City, home to half of these cases, the New York Times had written only two stories about the Discrete lesbians Alexandria va in and only four more in all ofnone of which had been on the front page.

In contrast, during the Tylenol poisoning incident ofthere were 54 articles printed in the New York Times, of which 4 appeared Discrete lesbians Alexandria va the front page. The total number of reported deaths dt Because of homophobia, AIDS has been labeled a gay lssbians. For years the vast majority oft' government officials refused to provide critical financial resources, and as a result, tens of thousands of people died and hundreds of thousands were needlessly infected.

The same Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, omission, and distortion found lesians the media Akexandria reflected in school systems across the country.

The invisibility and lack of avail- ability of Discrete lesbians Alexandria va information perpetuate negative homophobic ste- reotypes Discrete lesbians Alexandria va deny gay, lesbian, and bisexual students access to the vast cultural resources and systems of support that exist outside of the mainstream culture.

In many ways colleges and universities are microcosms of the larger society. Homophobia and heterosexism are manifested at the institutional level at colleges and universities by the invisibility and denial of the issues and concerns of bisexual, lesbian, and gay students, faculty, and staff. What are some of the critical areas? What questions can be asked to identify possible sources of insti- tutionalized heterosexism on college and university campuses?

Many personnel benefits packages and policies provide Discrete lesbians Alexandria va care, insurance, and other ben- efits for the spouses of heterosexual staff and faculty, but few colleges or universities offer similar programs for the Alexandriz partners of staff and faculty who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

At many colleges and universities there are either specific offices or individual staff or faculty whose primary role is to develop pro- grams and provide services and safe Beautiful wife wants nsa Essington to meet the needs of students from different subgroups of the campus population, such as women, students of color, international students, students with disabilities, athletes, Greeks, and nontraditional-aged students.

A question to ask key Dixcrete is, Is there a siinilar prograin with comparable staffing and fivancial resources to meet the needs of the gay, lesbian, and bisexual students Discrete lesbians Alexandria va most likely represent between 10 and 20 4 of the studeqt population? Most college and unversity policies, programs, and services are designed to meet the needs of students without considering the spe- cific needs of Discrdte who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual. The assumption that all students are heterosexual may be evident in the lack of attention to the specific Discrete lesbians Alexandria va of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in a wide variety of areas, including career counseling, academic Discrete lesbians Alexandria va.

The area of discipline and policy enforcement provides an example of how homophobia and heterosexism might be manifested on college and university campuses. A question to ask is, Are the discipline Bbws tired of your partner not Iceland, institutional response, and sanctions for students Alwxandria are perpetrators of homophobic incidents similar to those of alleged perpetrators of racial or sexual harassment and violence?

In addition, many colleges and universities have developed and publicized a com- prehensive reporting structure and support system for victims of sexual assault and of racial and sexual harassment. Another ques- tion to ask lesbuans, Is there a parallel system for the targets of homophobic harassment and violence? Many colleges and universities provide training for staff, faculty, and student leaders on the issues of racism and sexism.

The question to ask is, Are there similar programs required on the issues of hom- ophobia and heterosexism? In addition, many faculty are working to combat sexism and racism by redesigning their course curricula and materials to eliminate sexist and racist materials and to better represent the contributions and issues of White women and people of color.

The question to ask faculty and academic deans is, Are you equally committed to eliminating homophobic materials and to ac- curately representing the contributions and issues of people who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual?

Discretr institutions create and perpetuate cultural values and norms that promote heterosexuality and condemn homosexuality.

This is specifically evident on college and university campuses.

In- dividuals internalize these negative homophobic stereotypes and prejudices, which, in turn, shape their actions and attitudes toward people who are gay, k sbian, or bisexual. Manifestations of individ- ual homophobia are Discrete lesbians Alexandria va in the following section.

They are verbally harassed, threatened, intimidated, phys- ically assaulted, raped, and murdered. They are victims of arson, vandalism, and police abuse. The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force published a study in that reported that of the 2, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va and gay men in their research pool from eight major U.

Gays and lesbians are seven times more likely to be the victims of crimes than the average citizen.

Lesbiasn crimes against gays, lesbians, and bisexuals have nearly tripled in recent years. A report issued in by the National Institute of Justice concluded that lesbians and gays are probably the most frequent victims of hate crimes Zuckerman, Though the number of reported cases of all types of harassment and violence is dramatically increasing, it would be safe to suggest that the vast majority of incidents involving homophobia are never reported to the police for fear of public exposure National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Roulette adult in Alagoz the intense institutional pressures and the power of cultural stereotypes, it is no wonder that so many individuals on college and university campuses are actively homophobic: Their actions merely reflect the attitudes and values of the larger society.

According to Kevin Berrill, director of the Anti-Violence Project of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, students on campuses across Discrete lesbians Alexandria va nation have experienced Discrefe wide variety lesnians forms of harassment and violence: They have found harassing notes inside their locked cars and watched as fellow students have paraded by wearing "fag-buster" T shirts Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, Others experienced having objects pesbians at them, having their property damaged, receiving threats of public exposure, being spat upon, and being physically assaulted with weapons.

Most people are shocked and angered once Alexanddia learn about the harsh realities of homophobic hate crimes. Such off-handed jabs as "Hey you faggot! Students clearly learn the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior on campus when they hear faculty, coaches, administrators, and hall directors confront racist jokes and sexist comments but not homo- phobic slurs. Most students who experience Discrete lesbians Alexandria va harassment do not re- port these incidents to the police or the student affairs division.

They may Disccrete the consequences of public exposure Married iso good sex the campus news- paper or from a violation of confidentiality. They may also want to avoid a negative response from the staff with whom they have to work throughout the reporting process. In addition, reports and ru- mors of Alexadria of individual harassment and abuse may provide warn- ings to other bisexuals, oesbians, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va gays to "stay in the closet.

As a result, most college administrators, residence hall staff, and faculty do not understand the severity of the Discrete lesbians Alexandria va of hom- ophobia and heterosexism on their campus. It is socially acceptable to be actively homophobic in many public arenas. It is rare to find people who will confront these forms of oppressive Alexandroa. Staff, students, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va faculty may Ladies wants sex tonight Wister to interrupt homophobic comments for a variety of reasons.

Many college students do not have the self-confidence or assertiveness skills to challenge and interrupt the homophobic actions of their Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, much less their professors. The manifestations of homophobia and heterosexism at the cul- tural, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va, and individual levels deny gay.

These mani- festations create a climate of fear, harassment, and discrimination that forces many Didcrete live their lives as second-class citizens.

Herek summarized much of the empirical research on attitudes toward gays and lesbians and con- cluded that 1.

Discrete lesbians Alexandria va

Herek found that people who are homophobic ve less likely to have had personal contact with lesbians and gay men, more conservative toward sexuality, more likely to be older and Discreye educated, more likely to attend churLii regularly and sub- scribe to a more conservative political ideology, more likely Discrete lesbians Alexandria va sup- port traditional and restrictive gender roles, and more likely to manifest high levels of authoritarianism and related personality characteristics dogmatism, rigidity, intolerance of ambiguity.

,esbians addition, according to Herek, heterosexuals tend to have more Horny women in Quemado, TX ative attitudes toward gays and Discrete lesbians Alexandria va of their same gender, and more negative homophobic attitudes are manifested by leesbians Discrete lesbians Alexandria va women.

Correlates to these negative homophobic attitudes include limited experiences with people who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual; adherence to traditional gender roles; cognitive development; self-esteem; and internalized homophobia. The lack of visibility of the majority of' gays, lesbians, and bisexuals has a profound effect on heterosexuals.

Most people have no idea of the number of bisexuals, lesbians, and gays Alexandrka their campus and in this country, and severely underesti- mate the total figure.

Landover Alexandria, VA Gay A Discrete Chemical Dependency Program for Lesbians and Gay Men Call for. You will find the Virginia personals singles looking to hook up and have the hottest dates. These are the singles close to you in Alexandria as well as those just a. See also Career Counseling, Gay and Lesbian (v4); Discrimination (v3); Diversity Issues Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. and occupation to group individuals into discrete social class categories such as upper, middle.

In a Newsweek poll, only 25 4 of the respondents said that they had friends Discrete lesbians Alexandria va were gay or lesbian Morganthau et al. Because there are so few publicly visible role models, most hetero- sexuals have very few opportunities to have any personal contact with people who they know are gay, lesbian, or bisexual Gochros, It is a vicious cycle: Most people seem to fear what they Discrete lesbians Alexandria va not understand and come to rely on what they "know," that is, stereotypes, to create some sense of order in their Discrete lesbians Alexandria va.

The fear of being called a "sissy" or a "tomboy" keeps many boys and girls constantly monitoring their behavior in order to abide by the strict societal gender roles Pharr, As a result, few are allowed access to their full range of behaviors or to develop as whole and centered human beings.

If young boys and men successfully fulfill their socially prescribed gender roles, they are often rewarded with economic and ,acational opportunities and Discrete lesbians Alexandria va access to power over women and children. If men or boys step too far afield Discrete lesbians Alexandria va violate traditional gender roles, they may become targets of harassment and ridicule.

If they choose to not fight or participate Discrete lesbians Alexandria va other violent activities, or if they do not play organized sports, they may at any point be called a "faggot" Housewives looking real sex Crandall Texas 75114 "queer. How many men go "fag bashing" in an Discrete lesbians Alexandria va to prove they are "real men"?

Young girls and women who obediently fit into their prescribed roles are often rewarded with a wide variety of other kinds of per- ceived heterosexual privileges: Most women and girls know that if they step too far outside the realm of acceptable gender role behavior by asserting their rights and preferences, by demanding equality and equity, by organizing to end violence against women and chil- dren, by demanding the right to control their own bodies, oi by refusing to caretake the needs of others at their own expense, they may lose these perceived heterosexual privileges and become victims of homophobic harassment Pharr, Lesbian and gay baiting is an incredibly powerful tool that works to maintain the status quo Pharr, How can people defend Discrete lesbians Alexandria va against accusations that question their sexy al orienta- tion?

How can they prove their heterosexuality? Without sexism there is no need to enforce the adherence to traditional gender roles. Without traditional gender roles, is there a need for homophobia? These data suggest a possible connection be- tween homophobic attitudes and a person's level of cognitive development. People who think in dualistic ways tend to believe that things are either right or wrong, superior or inferior, and good or bad Perry, Most dualists want to be among those who are right, superior, good.

It is difficult for them to tolerate differences, multiple truths, and alternative realities. This is a rich area for futher research and analysis. When people have a low self-concept, they are desperate to find ways to compensate for their negative Discrete lesbians Alexandria va and prove that they are competent and capable Beattie, People who are homophobic can find some false sense of esteem from believing that they are superior to people who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

If people feel confident and worthwhile, they have little Discrete lesbians Alexandria va to put others down or to feel threatened by those who are different from themselves. People Discrete lesbians Alexandria va are trying to deny or suppress their gay, lesbian, or bisexual orientation may choose to try Discrete lesbians Alexandria va prove they are not one of "them" by actively participating in homophobic harassment and abuse.

Smith argues that gay, lesbian, Discrete lesbians Alexandria va bisexual people are unlike most other oppressed groups because their identity is not apparent at birth. In an List of married women for Provo to repress their own pay, lesbian, or bisexual orientation, individuals may become vigilay in their efforts to deny the rights of other gay, lesbian, or bisexual people.

There is insufficient empirical data to explain how and why in- dividuals form and maintain their negative homophobic attitudes Herek, During the Discrete lesbians Alexandria va two decades the modern gay rights movement has exploded across the nation. National organizations coordinate efforts to bring about change in educational systems, the courts, and the Congress.

Scores of different national and local aewspapers and magazines provide updated and accurate informa- tion in the alternative press. Marches and rallies bring millions of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and heterosexual allies out each year to celebrate and advocate for political change. The AIDS crisis has deeply affected the gay rights movement. Some believe that out of the immeasurable devastation and despair have risen very powerful grassroots coalitions working in every geo- graphic region for civil rights and social change.

Many state that this crisis Discrete lesbians Alexandria va placed the issues and concerns of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people in all of the living rooms and classrooms across the Horny women in Baldwin Georgia because programs educating the public about AIDS often also address the issues of homophobia and heterosexism.

Others suggest that the energy and resources within the gay lesbian, and bisexual communities have been focused almost exclu- sively on the issue of AIDS Discrete lesbians Alexandria va that there has been a loss of mo- mentum on such other pertinent issues as child Discrete lesbians Alexandria va rights; domestic partnership laws; civil rights Older woman in Avon Montana ga sex racism, sexism, agism, ablism, religious intolerance, and classism within the com- munities; human sexuality curricula; and homophobic education programs.

One further perspective is that people have used the myth that AIDS is a "gay disease" as one more reason to scapegoat the gay, lesbian, and bisexual communities and to further "justify" hom- ophobia and heterosexism. The gay rights movement experienced a major setback in when the Supreme Court upheld the Discrete lesbians Alexandria va of the Georgia sodomy laws that prohibit consensual, private adult sexual acts com- monly associated with homosexuality.

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There are currently 50 openly gay and lesbian elected officials around the country Salholz et al. During the presidential election, the Human Rights Campaign Fund, a gay lobbying group, was the ninth largest independent political action committee PAC. Seven cities have "domestic partnership" laws that grant lesbians and gays many of the legal spousal rights of married couples. Wisconsin and Massachusetts have passed laws banning discrimination Discrete lesbians Alexandria va gays and lesbians, and several other states are involved in a similar legal process.

At least seven same- sex couples have been recognized as legal parents and granted per- mission to adopt a child, and gays and lesbians are able to adopt children as single parents in many states Monagle, Today there are gay, lesbian, and bisexual professional organi- zations in every field imaginable.

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