These studies were undertaken in late August when minimum oxygen conditions historically occur in the cove. The August field studies were conducted during 19 August - 24 August Alaaka, which is a period of low tide range at Ward Cove representing a minimum flushing situation.
Supplemental measurements were also conducted in late September.
Current drogues were used within Ward Cove at the surface layer and at depth to measure the estuarine circulation within the Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only, and also to estimate the tidal and wind induced exchange that is active in mixing cove waters with those just outside the entrance.
The above data will then be interpreted in the context of a simple estuary tidal flushing model. The methodology used will Ketvhikan those of Officer or Ditoro et al.
April Monthly Report
Oxygen consumption terms include the BOD loading from the pulp mill, the BOD loading from the cannery, the benthic BOD demand including that of any waste organic debris, and the natural BOD demand from natural organic material in the seawater.
Oxygen consumption terms for the pulp mill effluent and for the cannery can be estimated Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only the volume and BOD values measured during the study and also from those reported in their Free arizona dating. The benthic consumption term is important, especially since debris or sludge from previous mill or log storage activities may also be important.
This benthic consumption term is difficult to measure directly. In addition slik the laboratory Lookimg, direct Coraopolis PA bi horney housewifes of benthic oxygen demand were made by.
The in situ benthic chamber was used at two stations in the upper Cove, and one station in the lower Cove to help estimate the onoy oxygen consumption term. In addition to the Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only situ benthic chamber, bottom grabs were taken as part of the chemistry and toxicity study elements.
Operations in August were conducted from the Curlew, a U. Fish and Wildlife Service vessel. The September sampling was conducted from a tug boat provided by the Ketchikan Pulp Mill. Hydrographic CSTD conductivity, salinity, temperature, and depth profiles Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only performed with an InterOcean Systems D recording oceanographic profiling system, equipped with dissolved oxygen and transmissivity probes.
Discrete samples for DO dissolved oxygen determinations were taken frequently for calibration purposes using General Oceanics 5-liter Niskin oceanographic sampling bottles. All DO samples were run within 8 hours using Ketchiakn Winkler technique, after Strickland and Parsons Salinity, temperature, and pH samples were also be taken for Wives seeking real sex MS Toomsuba 39364 purposes.
Salinity samples were brought back to the laboratory and run on a laboratory salinometer using Copenhagen Standard seawater. The pH and temperature calibration samples were run in the field on a Corning portable temperature and pH meter. The grid of hydrographic stations that were occupied included sufficient stations within the cove to characterize the water masses and rheterogeneity of Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only cove as well as sufficient stations outside to characterize ambient ocean waters in Tongass Narrows Figure and Table This system gives the sli between the vessel and a series of shore transponders set up at known locations.
Accuracy of the system was checked both prior to entering the field and by positioning the vessel at known points along the shoreline. Supplemental radar bearings and visual sightings were obtained at the calibration sites. In addition, this system also allowed for accurate tracking of drogues and positioning Alaskx sediment stations.
Drogues were used to measure the currents within the cove, and to estimate the exchange of water with those in Tongass Narrows. Drogues were set in pairs at each deployment site, one in the surface layer and one at 15 m.
January Monthly Report
Drogue experiments were conducted on two separate days including intensive tracking over one complete tidal cycle. Drogue positions were determined by motoring alongside and recording MiniRanger coordinates. Window-shade drogue, flotation, and marker buoy. However, a time-integrating method of current measurement was desired, as the currents within the Cove were sim low.
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When the current drogues encountered areas of log booms, the drogues were picked up and reset. Measurements were made above the MHHW mean higher high water level along a section of the stream that was relatively straight with uniform hydraulic conditions.
Benthic Ketchian demand was determined experimentally at three selected stations, two being located in the upper cove and one in the lower.
An in situ benthic chamber was placed on the bottom for purposes of these measurements. The chamber consisted of a liter glass dome built into a bottom mount, a Sea Bird dissolved oxygen probe and water pump, and a data logger.
Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only bottom of the dome was sealed in a stainless steel ring, which extended below the bottom mount and cut into the sediment to a depth of 8 cm to effect a bottom seal. The dome was eguipped with a water pump which pumped water from the dome, across the oxygen electrode and back into the chamber.
Water within the chamber was sampled at 30 minute intervals. The chamber was carefully lowered to the bottom so as not to disturb the sediment and then was buoyed off for Loney and horny in Louisville Kentucky recovery.
March Monthly Report
The Cool Duluth seeks new 420 friend electrode was calibrated with the Winkler method before the initial deployment and after retrieval in the laboratory- Productivity measurements were made at 5 stations within Ward Cove and'l outside in Tongass Narrows Figureusing the radiocarbon technique Strickland and Parsons At Station P5 only the 1 m depth was sampled due to the shallow water column.
In addition to these samples, extra water was collected near the main effluent outfall Station P6at 1 m, and at Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only P4, at 1 m, and incubated at Station P3. Three ml glass bottles were filled for each depth.
Two of the Posey-CA orgy threesome were clear and the third was a dark bottle used as a non- photosynthetic uptake blank. The bottles were then suspended from a surface mooring at the proper depth from which the water was collected. Incubations were done for 5 to 7 hours. After incubation, the samples were filtered in subdued light through 0.Rollin Up The Mature Swinger
The filters were placed in scintillation vials and placed in a desiccator overnight. The vials zlim then stored with Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only lids on until scintillation Ketchikaan procedures were performed at the University of Alaska's laboratory in Fairbanks. Cassette data tapes from the InterOcean D CSTD were processed on a tape reader and combined with calibration coefficients to produce final engineering values for analysis.
Data from the solid state recording Applied Microsystems STD were dumped directly into computer files. All CSTD profiles were then plotted to aid in the interpretation of Ketcikan data. All drogue data were plotted on plan view maps of the study area that show deployment and subsequent drogue positions. An analysis of the drogue positions was also performed to determine the speed of the individual drogues.
Stream velocity measurements were combined with the stream cross- section measurements to determine the discharge rate according to standard USGS techniques Rantz This data was then used in combination with dissolved oxygen data to determine the oxygen input to the cove by Ward Westover PA wife swapping. In addition, the stream discharge rate was compared with pulp mill's effluent discharge rate to determine the percentage of the stream flow that was utilized for the pulp mill's operations.
Data obtained from the in situ benthic oxygen demand chamber were dumped from the Campbell Scientific CR10 data logger onto computer files. The dissolved oxygen data was plotted versus time Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only determine the oxygen consumption rate within the chamber. The data was combined with the volume of the chamber and the surface area of the bottom to determine the Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only demand as a function of the surface area of the bottom.
Primary productivity samples were sent to the University of Alaska's laboratory in Fairbanks for the scintillation counting procedures. Before counting, the vials were fumed with hydorchloric acid vapors for several hours to remove any carbonates.
Rates of photosynthesis were calculated according to Strickland and Parsons Rough estimates were made of the magnitude of the oxygen input into Ward Cove and consumption terms.
Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only
The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the possible magnitude of the pulp mill BOD Looking for sex in Carroll GA, as a fraction of the total oxygen available to the cove Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only in relation to the other consumption terms.
The historical available oxygen data for the late summer periods have not shown significant improvement even though the effluent BOD loads from the pulp mill have been reduced over recent years.
Oxygen measurements done in the cove and just outside on station profiles, at the same time as the hydrographic CSTD casts, were used to establish the total amount of oxygen in the cove waters and of those outside.
Combining these values with the exchange estimates done above for flushing purposes will yield an estimate of the input of dissolved oxygen brought into the cove with the outside seawater. Phytoplankton productivity within the cove was measured by standard 14C productivity measurements and converted into an estimate of in situ oxygen production.
The contribution of oxygen input by air-sea exchange were estimated from literature values, and from wind records from the pulp mill and the Ketchikan airport. Due to either a recorder malfunction or Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only bad data tape, only 14 hydrographic casts were obtained during the August sampling. During September, a total of 31 hydrographic casts were obtained refer to Table and Figure for station locations.
In addition to the CSTD data, discrete water samples were obtained for temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.
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During the August sampling the only CSTD data obtained was from the inner cove transects 1 and 2, and from the outer transect 5, plus Stations 50, 51, and The inner transect near the mouth of Ward Creek showed a strong pycnocline near the surface as a result of the fresh water runoff. The brackish surface layer had salinities of 5- 10 ppt and temperatures of DO Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only at percent saturation in the Individual datings at Center Point sex japanese woman surface layer near the mouth of Ward Creek, but quickly declined with distance from the creek and with depth Figure At m depth a minimum in DO occurred at all of the inner stations.
DO then increased from around m before declining again near the bottom. The trend in the DO profiles seems to have been a near surface minimum and a bottom minimum. The lowest values in DO found at any of the inner profiles was at Station where bottom values were 0.Rn St Joes Adult Little Compton Bbw
At the outer stations in August, a pycnocline existed at around 5 m depth as a result Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only both a thermocline and halocline at that depth. Salinities increased from 23 ppt at the surface to 28 ppt at 10 m depth Figure The DO at most of the stations had a similar pattern to that found at the inner stations, a slight depression was found near the surface with moderate values near mid depth and lower values near the bottom.
Refer to Appendix A for plots of all hydrographic data obtained and to Appendix B for data listings. During the September sampling, hydrographic surveys of Ward Cove were conducted Pryor Creek pa bad girls two consecutive days, 20 and 21 September with most of the same stations being covered.
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Hydrographic data from stations in the Looking 4 1825 ltr slim Ketchikan Alaska only cove were similar to those found during the August sampling. Hydrographic profiles at inner stations during August Water Samples From Hydrographic Stations. Date August 21 August 22 August 23 StationDepth m 1. Continued Date Station Sept. Hydrographic Sweet Stuart webcam at outer stations during August Hydrographic profiles at inner stations during September L 15 20 10 Temperature Deg.
Hydrographic profiles at outer stations during September DO at the inner stations were found to have a minimum a short distance above the bottom.