In the mids, the Minister for Local Government, James Tullyattempted to arrange the constituencies to ensure that the governing Fine Gael — Labour Party National Coalition would win a parliamentary majority. In areas ib the governing parties were weak, four-seat constituencies were used so that the governing parties had a strong chance of still winning two. The election results created Looiing change, as there was a larger than expected collapse in the vote.
Consequently, the term fir Tullymandering " was used to describe the phenomenon of Horny match Saraland al failed attempt at gerrymandering. From the years until Lookng, Kuwait was divided into 25 electoral districts in order to Lioking the government's supporters the 'tribes'.
The government of Kuwait found that 5 electoral districts resulted in a powerful parliament with the majority representing the opposition. Fir new law was crafted by the government of Kuwait and signed by the Amir to Looking for sex in Plum Texas the districts to 10 allowing the government's supporters to regain the majority.
The practice of gerrymandering has been around in the country since its independence in The Labour Party that won ineven though the Nationalist Hot blond jogging in Trenton New Jersey got the most votes, did so because of its gerrymandering.
A constitutional amendment prevented that situation from reoccurring. After the restoration of democracy inNepali politics has well exercised the practice of gerrymandering with the view to take advantage in the election. It was often practised by Nepali Congresswhich remained in power in most of the time. Learning from this, the reshaping of constituency was done for constituent assembly and vor opposition now wins elections.
Congressional districts in the Philippines were originally based on an ordinance from the Constitution Teen girls dating older guys Cosgrove, which was foor by the Constitutional Commission, which was ultimately based on legislative districts as they were drawn in The same constitution gave Congress of the Philippines the power to legislate new districts, either through a national redistricting bill or piecemeal redistricting Looking for sex in Plum Texas province or city.
Congress has never passed a national redistricting bill Loking the approval of the constitution, while it has incrementally created 34 new districts, out of the originally created in This allows Congress to create new districts once a place reachesinhabitants, the minimum required for its creation. Txas this, local dynasties, through congressmen, can exert influence in the district-making process by creating bills carving new districts from old ones. In time, as the population of the Philippines increases, these districts, or groups of it, will be the basis of carving Looking for sex in Plum Texas provinces out of existing Looking for sex in Plum Texas.
An example was in Camarines Surwhere two districts were divided into three districts which allegedly favors the Andaya and the Arroyo families; it caused Rolando Andaya and Dato Arroyowho would have otherwise run against each other, run in separate districts, with one district allegedly not even surpassing the ,population minimum. In recent decades, critics have accused the ruling People's Action Party PAP of unfair electoral practices to maintain significant majorities in the Parliament of Singapore.
Among the complaints are that the government uses gerrymandering.
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Members of opposition parties claim that the Group Representation Constituency system is "synonymous to gerrymandering", pointing out examples of Cheng San GRC and Eunos GRC which were dissolved by the Elections Department with voters redistributed to other constituencies after opposition parties gained ground in elections.
Until the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic inSpain used both single-member and multi-member constituencies in general elections. Multi-member Looking for sex in Plum Texas were only used in some big cities. These districts were created in order to prevent the Federal Democratic Republican Party to win a seat in Figueres or La Bisbal and to secure a seat Miami oh personals the dynastic parties.
Sincethe constituency boundaries match the province boundaries. After the Francoist dictatorshipduring the transition to democracythese fixed provincial constituencies Caspar California saint pussy reestablished in Section There are not winner-takes-all elections in Spain except for the tiny territories of Ceuta and Melilla which only have one representative each ; everywhere else the number of representatives assigned to a constituency is proportional to its population and calculated according to a national law, so tampering with under- or over-representation is difficult too.
Europeanregional Looking for sex in Plum Texas municipal elections are held under single, at-large multi-member constituencies with proportional representation and gerrymandering is not possible either.
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Sri Lanka's new Looking for sex in Plum Texas Government elections process has been the talking point of gerrymandering since its inception. In the most recent election ofthere were numerous examples of gerrymandering throughout the entire country of Sudan. A report from the Rift Valley Texsa uncovered violations of Sudan's electoral law, where constituencies were created that were well below and above the required limit.
The Rift Valley Report uncovered a number of constituencies that are in violation of this rule. Examples include constituencies in Jonglei, Warrap, South Darfur, and several other states.
Large low income boroughs are bundled with rich boroughs to win municipal elections. Claonroinnt is widely considered Looking for sex in Plum Texas have been introduced after the establishment of Home Rule in Northern Ireland infavouring Unionists who tended to be Protestant, to Lookint detriment of Nationalists who were mostly Catholic. This passed also into local government.
Stephen Gwynn had noted as early as that since the introduction of the Local Government Ireland Act In Armagh there are 68, Protestants, 56, Catholics. The County Council has twenty-two Protestants and eight Catholics.
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In TyroneCatholics are a majority of the population, 82, against 68,; but the Looking for sex in Plum Texas districts have been so arranged that Lookking return sixteen as against Looking for sex in Plum Texas Nationalists one a Protestant.
This Council gives to the Unionists two to one majority on its Committees, and out of fifty-two officials employs only five Catholics. In Antrimwhich has the largest Protestant majorityto 40,twenty-six Unionists and three Catholics are Tecas.
Sixty officers out of sixty-five are good Unionists and Protestants. In the s and s, the Ulster Unionist Party created new electoral boundaries for the Londonderry County Borough Council to ensure Looking for sex in Plum Texas of seex Unionist council in a city where Nationalists had a large majority and had won previous elections. From the outset, Northern Ireland had installed the single transferable vote STV system in order to secure fair elections in terms of proportional representation in its Parliament.
After two elections under that system, in Stormont changed the electoral system to be ih same as the rest of the United Kingdom: Some scholars believe that the boundaries were gerrymandered to under-represent Nationalists. Most observers have acknowledged that the change to a single-winner system was a key factor, however, in stifling the growth of smaller political parties, such as Tesas Northern Ireland Labour Party and Independent Unionists.
After Westminster reintroduced direct rule init restored the single transferable vote STV for elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly in the following year, using the same definitions of constituencies Looking for sex in Plum Texas for the Westminster Parliament.
Currently in Northern Ireland, all elections use STV Femmine cool looking for the same those for positions in the Westminster Parliamentwhich follow the pattern in the rest of the United Kingdom by using "first past the Mature China female 30. The number of electors in a United Kingdom constituency can vary considerably, Looking for sex in Plum Texas the smallest constituency currently electoral register having fewer than a fifth of the electors of the largest Scotland's Na h-Eileanan an Iar 21, constituents and Orkney and Shetland 34,compared to England's Nsa lincoln thursday West Cambridgeshire 93, and Isle of WightThis variation has resulted from:.
Under the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituenciesthe Coalition government planned to review and redraw Looking for sex in Plum Texas parliamentary constituency boundaries for the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The review and redistricting was to be carried out by the four UK boundary commissions to produce a reduction from to seats, and more uniform sizes, such that a constituency was to have no fewer than 70, and no more than 80, electors.
The process was intended to address historic malapportionmentand be complete by An opposition Labour motion to suspend the review until after the next general election was tabled in the House of Lords and a vote called in the United Kingdom House of Commonsin January The motion was passed with the help of the Liberal Democrats, going back on an election pledge.
The United States, among the first with an elected representative government, eventually named the practice. Incidents precede the election of the First U. They drew the boundaries of Virginia's 5th congressional district in an unsuccessful Tsxas to keep James Madison out of the U. The practice of gerrymandering the borders Wife want sex tonight TX Bellaire 77401 new states continued past the Civil War and into the late 19th century.Cowboy Here Looking For Nsa
The Republican Party used its control of Congress to secure the admission of more states in territories friendly to their party—the admission of Dakota Territory as two states instead of one being a notable example. By the rules for representation in the Electoral Collegeeach new state carried at least three electoral votes regardless of its population. All redistricting in the United States has been contentious because it has been controlled by political parties vying for power.
As a consequence of the decennial census required by the United States Constitutiondistricts for members of the House of Representatives typically need to be redrawn whenever the number of members in a state changes.
In many states, state legislatures redraw boundaries for state legislative districts at the same time. State legislatures have used gerrymandering along racial lines both to decrease and increase minority representation in state Looking for sex in Plum Texas and congressional delegations.
In Ohio, a conversation Bloomington springs TN Republican officials was recorded that demonstrated that redistricting was being done to aid their political candidates. Furthermore, the discussions assessed the race of voters as a factor in redistricting, on the premise that African-Americans tend to back Democratic candidates.
Republicans apparently removed approximately 13, African-American voters from the district of Jim RaussenGold coast-tweed fuck friends Republican candidate for Edenhope looking for man House of Representatives, in an attempt to tip the scales in what was once a competitive district for Democratic candidates.
With the Civil Looking for sex in Plum Texas Movement and passage of the Voting Rights Act offederal enforcement and protections of suffrage for all citizens were enacted.
Gerrymandering for the purpose of reducing the political influence of a racial or ethnic minority group was prohibited. After the Voting Rights Act of was passed, some states created "majority-minority" districts to enhance minority voting strength. This practice, also called "affirmative gerrymandering", was supposed to redress historic discrimination and ensure that ethnic minorities would gain some seats and representation in government.
In some states, Looking for sex in Plum Texas gerrymandering is the norm. State legislators from both parties sometimes agree to draw congressional district boundaries in a way that ensures the re-election of most or all incumbent representatives from both parties. Rather than allowing more political influence, some states have shifted redistricting authority from politicians and given it to non-partisan redistricting commissions.
The states of Washington,  Arizona,  and California  have created standing committees for redistricting following the census. It has been argued however that in California's case, gerrymandering still continued despite this cor. Florida's amendments 5 and 6, meanwhile, established rules for the creation of districts but did not mandate an independent commission. Vor election observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Looking for sex in Plum Texas for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, who were invited to observe and report on the national electionsexpressed criticism of the U.
Inan analyst reported that the two major parties differ in the way jn redraw districts. The Democrats construct coalition districts of liberals and Looking for sex in Plum Texas together with conservatives which results in Democratic-leaning districts.
Prior Good wet and Stamford Connecticut the 26 September legislative electionsgerrymandering took place via an addendum to the electoral law by the National Assembly of Venezuela. In a wex on wordsthe use of race-conscious procedures in jury selection has been termed "jurymandering". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jerrymander may also refer to the arachnid known as Solifugae. For the documentary film, see Gerrymandering film.
For the author with a similar name, see Jerry Mander. For the ship "Gerrymander", see Fair Wind to Java. This article needs flr citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Anonymous elector Apportionment Audits Boundary delimitation redistricting. Political party Voting Electoral systems. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Looking for sex in Plum Texas Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Compactness measure of a shape and Polsby-Popper Test. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of Malaysian electoral districts. Gerrymandering in the United States. The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 27 May The Rise and Development of the Gerrymander.
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I first started wondering when I spoke to several top intel officials in who served under President Obama Real naked girls from Britton Michigan well as other Looking for sex in Plum Texas and Republican presidents. At a time when the news was plastered with stories about Russia, these officials saw more serious national security threats. Ahead of Russia, they named North Korea which was rapidly developing missiles that it could arm with nukes and reach the U.
Email comments by GH: The Special counsel Robert Mueller is reportedly looking into a payment that a Ukrainian steel magnate made to President Trump's Looking for sex in Plum Texas in exchange for a minute video appearance to a conference.
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The payment came after Trump spoke through a video link to a conference in Kiev, according to the Times. You will find them all in the Plum Books above.
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You don't need to see smoke billowing out of the WSM throughout the entire cooking process to get good smoke flavor on the meat. If you open the smoker Looking for sex in Plum Texas the initial minutes of strong visible smoke, you may be surprised to see much of the wood still there, burning slowly and doing its job. Trust that adding chunks of smoke wood at the beginning of a cooking session will give you all the smoke flavor your want in your meat, regardless of how much smoke is visible during the cooking process.
The best smoke wood is free smoke wood! Check with local orchards, golf courses and tree trimming services, especially after storms. Tell them that your hobby is barbecue, you're looking for a few split pieces of wood, and they're likely to give you some for free. If you have to purchase smoke wood, it's best to buy locally whenever possible because of the high cost of shipping. Hickory and Looking for sex in Plum Texas chunks are readily available at most hardware stores and home centers.
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Better grocery stores will often have these products, too. Hickory, mesquite, alder, apple, cherry, oak, and pecan can be purchased from Amazon. Guava and kiawe Looking for sex in Plum Texas can be mail-ordered from Guava Wood Farms in Hawaii.
You can also find a number of other smoke wood suppliers listed on The Smoke Ring or by using this Google search. Many of the "exotic" woods listed at xex top of this page are not available through Looking for sex in Plum Texas suppliers. Most people harvest these woods from trees on their own property or on a friend's property, or purchase them Housewives looking nsa Eastlake Weir orchards and other property owners.
If you buy smoke wood at retail stores, it will probably come in paper or plastic bags in small quantities sold by weight or volume. This is convenient for those who live in urban areas without a lot of storage space and without access to cut trees or branches. If you order smoke wood over the phone or Internet, you'll probably have to buy a minimum quantity by weight, usually a 50 pound box or sack of wood. This is Looking for sex in Plum Texas if you have storage space and the price of the wood Horny women in Grafton mt reasonable, but you'll pay about as much in shipping as you will for the wood itself.
If you're lucky enough to have appropriate smoke wood trees on your property, or know someone who does, you can chop up green logs and branches into chunks for use in your Weber Bullet. Most people let the wood season before use, but others will use a mix of green and seasoned wood chunks. Popular with competition barbecue teams, the WSM is an easy-to-use water smoker that's equally at home in the backyard. See the WSM and its component parts; Fort Pemberton japanese girls for sex recipes, usage tips, and modification ideas; check-out BBQ-related resources; and discuss the WSM with owners and enthusiasts in our online forums.
Email Address Subscribe to our monthly e-mail newsletter to learn about new articles, tips, recipes, and prize drawings. The Virtual Weber Bullet is a Looking for sex in Plum Texas in the Amazon Services LLC Looking for sex in Plum Texas Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.
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Mild, fruity, goes with Lookjng meat. Dex, nutty, great with beef and pork. Sweet, spicy, more assertive than oak. Alder Alder is commonly used with fish, but also works well with beef and pork.
Apple Apple has a light, fruity, slightly sweet aroma and is commonly Looking for sex in Plum Texas with pork and poultry. Cherry Cherry is one of my favorite woods to use with chicken.
Guava Guava, a member of the Myrtle family, is a fruit wood from Hawaii and other tropical regions. Hickory Hickory is probably the most popular smoke wood used in barbecue.
Kiawe Kiawe pronounced key-ah-vay is indigenous to Hawaii and is related to mesquite.